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2018-08-09

素来有硬汉型男之称的张宁江以简约清爽的西服造型亮相,而他身旁气质乖巧的元气美少女夏恩则一身清新粉红礼裙,镂空花纹设计愈发突显她的灵动可爱。张宁江在这部青春校园热血电影中饰演为兄弟两肋插刀的二饼,夏恩饰演欧豪的妹妹荆菁,一位一言不合就敢教训哥哥的俏学霸,两位演员戏内戏外都令人眼前一亮。活动现场,主持人开玩笑说张宁江的帅气脸庞在海报中过于低调,他笑称自己其实是入戏太深。在互动环节,5块钢化木板被张宁江轻松掰折,不愧为青禾男团的力量担当。让人大感意外的是,看上去柔柔弱弱的夏恩妹妹也轻松徒手劈开板砖,一展传说中的软妹攻风姿,看来这个剧组的武力值不可小觑。

  我国古代的造船技艺(图)

  ZhiZhenfeng,associateresearchfellowattheInstituteofLaw,ChineseAcademyofSocialSciencesThelogicofChinesepoliticsrequiresanintegrationoftheCPC,asanomnipotentmechanism,isresponsibleformakinglaws,includingtheConstitution,,includingthetopCPCleadersandtheCPCorgans,,professorofHumanRightsatUtrechtUniversityanddirectoroftheNetherlandsSchoolofHumanRightsResearchTheimportanceattachedtohumanrights,especiallyintheareaofcriminallaw,eofcourtsandjudges,liketransferringthepaymentofjudges"shame"officialswhointerferewiththecourseofjusticeaswellastheauthorityoftheSupremePeoplesCo,theoptiontosetupsuchdistrictsisveryinnovativeandislikelytosolvepartoftheproblem..LiuHong,directorofNanyangCenterforPublicAdministrationatNanyangTechnologicalUniversityThemainchallengesincludehowtoestablishasystemicstructureofruleoflawcoveringallaspectsofpoliticalandsocialdevelopment,i,Chinahastoconsiderhowtoinstillgovernmentofficials,someofwhomareusedtotheideathatpowerisabovethelaw,withtheindispensablespirita,directorofResearchCenterofSocialGovernanceattheChineseAcademyofGovernanceLawsandregulationsarejustwordsonpaperiftheyarenzingthelaw,simmediateinterests,China,,professoranddirectoroftheHumanRightsStudiesCenterofthePartySchooloftheCPCCentralCommitteeChinasestablishmentoftheruleoflawcomplieswithaprChina,directoroftheCentrefortheStudyofGlobalisationandRegionalisation,UniversityofWarwickChinaseconomicmodelneedstobereformed,andsodoestherelationshipbetweenthePartyandthepeople,ecessary,andwehaveseensome,thoughstillfarfromcomplete,,,yofPennsylvaniaLawSchoolInChina,,ther,tyandStatepowerandacceptinglaw-mandatedou:,39,wasclearedofawrongsCourtoverturnedits1998guiltyverdictagainstShe,chargedwithkillinghiswife,,000yuan($113,830)’scasesparkedpublicawarenessforthen:XinhuaBillionaireLaiChangxingwassentencedtolifeforsmugglingandbriberyin“YuanhuaSmugglingCase”inmedia,thetrialmarkedanendtothesuccessfulrepatriationofwhowasoncedescribedasChina’:,formervice-chairmanoftheNationalPeoplesCongressStandingCommittee,wasexecutedoncorruptionbriberyin2000,thefirsthsCourtannouncedthesentenceonJuly31,2000,averdictapprovedbytheSupremePeople’scommitmenttoConstitutionalprinciplethat“thelawappliesequallytoallcitizens.”Photo:,ZhaoZuohai,57,wasreleasedin2010af’sadoptionoftheexclusionaryrule,whichholdsthatevidenceobtain,000($105,300),compensationiscalculatedac:,hHazardswasputintoeffectonMay9,2003–,resultinginitsspreadtoover20provincesandcities,includingBeijing,,China’shealthministerandMengXuenong,mayorofBeijing,weresackedonApril20,:mated300,000adverseeventsacrossChinain2008provedtobetheimpetusneededtopassthenation’,theSanluGroup,,ChinapasseditsFoodSafetyLaw,:mated300,000adverseeventsacrossChinain2008provedtobetheimpetusneededtopassthenation’,theSanluGroup,,ChinapasseditsFoodSafetyLaw,:llegalfundraisingforherenterprise,acasethatsparkedpublicde,founderoftheBenseHoldingGroupandpreviouslyoneofChina’srichestfemaleentrepreneurs,wassentencedtodeathin2009forcheatingsome380millionyuan($),andsentencedhertodeathwithatwo-yearreprieve(thesentencehasbeencommutedtolifeinprison).Thecasealsosolicitedpubliccriticismagainstthelegalsystem,arguing:XinhuaDengYujiao,21,wasclearedofmurderchargesin2009afte,atownshipcommerceofficial,,:tpetitioningforjusticeforher11-year-olddaughter,’ssentenceonAugust2,sCongressendedthereeducationthroughlaborsystem,whichhadbeenimplementedformorethan50years,onDecember28,sPoliticalConsultativeConferencewasissuedonSeptember21,heFirstPlenarySessionoftheFirstNationalPeople“ruleoflaw”legislationoccurredduringDengXiaoping’saddressatacentralworkingconferenceduringthethirdplenarysessionofthe11thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina.“Toensurepeoplesdemocracy,weshouldstrengthentheruleoflaw,”,officialsproposeda16-characterguidelinefornewlegislation:“Theremustbelawstogoby,thelawsmustbeobservedandstrictlyenforced,andlawbreakersmustbeprosecuted.”FrameworkestablishedThefourthrevisionofChina’sConstitutionbasedonapreviousversionenactedin1954wasadoptedonDecember4,1982,layingasolidfoundationforChina’,AdministrativeProceduralLaw,LaborContractLaw,PropertyLaw,CorporationLaw,EnterpriseBankruptcyLaw,werepassed,allofwhichprovidedthenecessaryframeworktoimplementChina’decidedtomake“ruleoflaw”“rulebylaw”waschangedto“ruleoflaw”.Newaddition“Ruleoflaw”fChina,“thefundamentalstrategyof‘ruleoflaw’beingfullyimplemented”wastreatedas“theimportantgoalofbuildingwell-offsocietyinanall-aroundway.”Humanrightsacknowledged“TheStaterespectsandsafeguardshumanrights”waswrittenintotheConstitution.‘WithChinesecharacteristics’WuBangguo,thenchairmanoftheNPCStandingCommittee,announcedthatthe“SocialistlegalsystemwithChinesecharacteristicshasbeenformed.”RulesredefinedDuringthe18thNationalCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChina,theroleofruleoflawwasredefinedas“thefundamentalwaytoruletheStateanddealwithpolitics.”SpurreddevelopmentDuringthethirdplenarysessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheChineseCommunistParty,“promotingtheconstructionofruleoflaw”bmmitteeoftheChineseCommunistParty,theCPCCentralCommitteesdecisiononmajorissuesconcerningcomprehensivelyadvancingruleoflawwaspassed.,NorthKoreasRepublicofKorea(DPRK)KimJongUngavefieldguidancetoanewlybuiltresidentialdistrict,theofficialKCNAnewsagencyreportedTuesday,unwillappearattheanniversaryofthefoundingoftherulingWorkersPartyofKorea(WPK)onOctober10,afteraprolongr7,astheEuropsRepublicofKorea(DPRK)onOctober7heldanationalmeetingtomarkthe17thanniversaryoflateleaderKimJong-ilselectionasheadoftherulingparty,statemediareported,heDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)KimYang-GontoldhimonOctober4thattherewasnoproblemwithDPRKleaderKimJong-unshealth,():KimJong-unwatchedtheperforma:NorthKoreanleaderKimJong-unwas:Ashortvid:As:ChosunIlboOctober5:SouthKoreanUnificationMinisterRyooKihl-jaesaidKimYang-gon,aseniorleaderfromtheDPRK,toldhimprivatelythat,duringthevisitofthreeseniorDP:TheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)heldanationalmeetingtomarkthe17thanniversaryoflateleaderKimJong-ilselectionasheadoftherulingparty,statemediareported,,,but"Ibelievethatwegethighl"Source:ChosunIlboOctober10:Kim,whichwasacommemorativeceremonymarkingthe69thanniversaryofthefoundingtherulingWorkersPartyofKorea(WPK).October14:TopleaderoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)KimJong-unhasgavefieldguidancetoanewlybuiltresidentialdistrict,theofficialKCNAnewsagencyreportedonOctober14,:Health:NorthKoreasstate-runCentralTVmadeanofficialmentionofitsleaders"indisposedcondition."Location:NorthKoreanleaderKimJong-unisbelievedtobestayingnorthofPyongyangasherecoversfromanundisclosedillness,:ThereisalsospeculationthatKim:InSouthKorea,theUSandJapan,quiteanumberofpeopleholdthattheKoreanPeninsulawontwitnessadramati,anexpertonNorthKoreaatthePartySchooloftheCPCCentralCommitteeSpeculationsonwhyNorthKoreastopleaderKimJong-unhasnotappearedinpublicforoveramontharefuell:Chin,NorthKoreamustmakeachange,whichisnotonlyaresultoftheheightenedpressureitfaces,,theNorthKoreanleadershipmustgetagripoverthetrans"opening-up",,,underthecurrentstatesystem,ThekeydivergencebetweenNorthKoreaandChinaliesinthenuclearissue,buttherearemultipleconflictsamongNorthKorea,SouthKorea,ula,whiletheUSlongsforarevamptoNorthKoreassystem,:ChinamayreconsiderNKpoliciesinvolvingSino-UStiesUSVicePresidentMikePencevisitsObservationPostOuellettewithhisdaughtersnearthetrucevillageofPanmunjomint:APTheUSandSouthKoreasaidonMondaythattheywouldtoleratenomoremissileornucleartestsfrom,withUSViceP,vowingtomoveaheadwiththeearlydeploymentofthemissiledefensesystem,andthatneithertheUSnorSouthKoreawouldtoleratefurthermissileandnucleartests,ReutersreportedonMonday."Justinthepasttwoweeks,theworldwitnessedthestrengtforcesoftheUSinthisregion,"Pencesaid,notingthattheUSNavystruckaSyrianairfieldwith59Tomahawkmissilesthismonth."PencewantedtodeliveramessagetoNorthKoreathatitwoulduseeverymeans,includingmilitaryones,tocrackdownonitsnuclearandrelatedfacilities,"LiuWeidong,aresearchfellowattheInstituteofAmericanStudiesoftheChinaAcademyofSocialSciences,toughestattitudesofar."TheUSal,"sforeignministrysaidonMondaythatChinawouldliketocooperatewithallparties,includingtheUS,torealizethedenuclearizationoftheKoreanPeninsulaandsafeguardregionalpeacethroughnegotiations."ButChinamayreconsidersomeofitspreviouspoliciesonNorthKoreawhenitinvolvesSino-USrelationsandthefutureimpactofNorthKoreasnucleartestsonChina,aswellasthedeploymentofTHAAD,"snucleartestshavetriggeredconcernamongChinesenetizens,,LiaoningProvincetoldtheGlobalTimes(DMZ)betweenNorthandSouthKoreaonMonday,Pencealsosaidthat"alloptionsareonthetabletoachievetheobjectivesandensurethestabilityofthepeopleofthiscountry,"and"therewasaperiodofstrategicpatience,buttheeraofstrategicpatienceisover."PencesremarkscameonedayafterNorthKoreatestedanunidentifiedmissileearlyonSundayfromthecoastalcityofSinpo,withthePentagonconfirmingthatithadfailed,snationalsecurityadviser,,indicatedonSundaythatTrumpwasnotconsideringmilitaryactionagainstNorthKoreafornow,evenasanuclear-poweredaircraftcarrierstrikegroupwasheadingfortheregion,Reutersreported."TheUSmilitarythreatmaybringatoughresponsefromNorthKorea,"LüChao,aresearchfellowattheLiaoningAcademyofSocialSciences,April24or25mightreflectNorthKoreaaryofthemilitarysfoundingonApril25,"apossibleoccasionforaprovocativeact.""IfNorthKorealaunchesanewroundofnucleartests,itwillgivetheUSanexcusetostrikeaswellascondemnationfromtheinternationalcommunityandoppositionfromChinaandRussia,"Lüsaid."PencerythreatsinresponsetoNorthKoreascontinuingnucleartests,",orsattheairporttoldtheGlobalTimesthatmorethaeSun,rvousespeciallyafterthemonitordisplayingboardinginformationsuddenlywentblankat4:lwaysdelayed,:Postedin:,NEWFOCUSChinareaffirmedonThursdaythatapeacefulapproachistherightsolutiontothenuclearissueonthe,afteraformerUSenvoysaidtheuseofmilitaryforceis"unquestionable"ceandstabilityservestheinterestsofallpartiesinvolved,Chinesefore,formerUSenvoytotheUnitedNations(UN),whowrotethat"intheend,thisunquestionablyimpliestheuseofmilitaryforce,"despitebroaderconflicts,sarticle,GengaddedthatattentionshouldbegiventocurrentUSambassadortotheUNNikkiHaley,sayingitisherremarksthatreflecttheUSstance.",butweprefernottohavetogointhatdirection,"sactionswere"quicklyclosingoffthepossibilityofadiplomaticsolution"andtheUSwaspreparedtodefenditselfanditsallies,,ChinasrepresentativesaidChinastronglyurgesNorthKoreatostrictlyabidebyresolutionsoftheUNSecurityslatestmissilelaunchwasaseriousviolationofrelevantUNSecurityCouncilresolutionsandis"unacceptable,"LiuJieyi,ChinaspermanentrepresentativetotheUN,alsocalledonallpartiesconcernedtoexerciserestraint,,urgingdialogueandtheChina-proposeddualtrackapproachtocooldownthecurrentconfrontationsontheKoreanPeninsula."ChinahasalwaysinsistedonrealizingthedenuclearizationoftheKoreanPeninsula,maintainingpeaceandstabilityonthepeninsulaandseekingasolutionthroughdialogueandconsultations,"Liusaid,stressingthat"militarymeansmustnotbeanoptioninthisregard."Functions:elopment,annualplans,mediumandlong-termdevelopmentplans;tocoordinateeconomicandsocialdevelopment;tocarryoutresearchandanalysisondomesticandinternationaleconomicsituation;toputforwardtargetsandpoliciesconcerningthedevelopmentofthenationaleconomy,theregulationoftheoverallpricelevelandtheoptimizationofmajoreconomicstructures,andtomakerecommendationsontheemploymentofvariouseconomicinstrumentsandpolicies;tosubmittheplanfornationaleconomicandsocialdevelopmenttotheNationalPeoplest,warningandinformationguidance;tostudyimportantissuesconcerningmacroeconomicperformance,aggregatebalance,nationaleconomicsecurityandoverallindustrialsecurityandputforwardpolicyrecommendationsonmacroeconomicmanagement;tocoordinateandaddressmajorissuesineconomicoperationandadjusteconomicperformance;totakechargeinorganizingtheemergent,participateintheformulationoffiscal,monetaryandlandpolicies,andformulateandimplementpricepolicies;toanalyzetheeffectsofimplementingfiscal,financialandlandpoliciesandsuperviseandinspecttheimplementationofpricepolicies;tosetandadjustthepricesofimportantcommoditiesthatareregulatedbytheStateandimportanttariffsandchargesandaccordingtorelevantlegislationsinvestigateanddealwithpricemonopolyandactivitiesthatbreachthepriceregulations;tocontrolandmonitorthetotalsizeofChinasforeigndebts,optimizeitsmix,,promoteandcoordinatetherestructuringofeconomicsystems;tostudymajorissuesconcerningtherestructuringofeconomicsystemsandopeninguptotheoutsideworld;toformulateplansforthecomprehensiverestructuringofeconomicsystems,coordinateplansfordedicatedeconomicrestructuringandcoordinatejointlywithotheragenciesimportantdedicatedeconomicrestructuringplans;toguidepilotprojectso;toformulateregulatorytargets,policiesandmeasuresconcerningthetotalsizeandstructureoffixedassetinvestmentinthewholesociety;toarrangeandcoordinatededicatedplansthatinvolvecentralgovernmentinvestmentandkeyconstructionprojectsinaccordancewithbalancedneeds;toarrangefiscalexpenditureforeconomicconstruction;toapprove,authorize,andreviewkeyconstructionprojects,foreign-fundedkeyprojects,keyinvestmentprojectsforoverseasresourcesdevelopment,andinvestmentprojectsutilizinglargeamountofforeignexchangeasmandatedbytheStateCouncil;toguideandsupervisetheutilizationofforeignloansinconstructionprojects;toguideprivateinvestment;tostudyandputforwardstrategiesandplansforforeigncapitalutilizationandoverseasinvestment,aswellastargetsandpoliciesconcerningaggregatebalanceandstructuraloptimization;toorganizeinspectionforkeyconstructionprojects;;toorganizetheformulationofcomprehensiveindustrialpolicies,coordinatekeyissuesinthedevelopmentofprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustriesaswellasbalanceandcoordinateindustrialdevelopmentwithrelevantplans,majorpoliciesandplansforthenationaleconomicandsocialdevelopment;tocoordinatemajorissuesinagriculturalandruraleconomicandsocialdevelopment;toformulatestrategiesandmajorpoliciesfordevelopmentofserviceindustrytogetherwithotherministries;toformulatestrategiesandplansformodernlogisticsdevelopment;toformulatestrategies,plansandmajorpoliciesforthedevelopmentofhigh-techindustriesandadvanceofindustrialtechnologies;tocoordinateandaddressmajoriss,coordinatetheimplementationoftheseplansandcarryoutmonitoringandassessment;toformulatestrategies,plansandmajorpoliciesforpromotingthecoordinateddevelopmentofregionaleconomy,developmentofwesternregion,revitalizationofnortheasternregionandotheroldindustrialbases,andriseofcentralregionofChina;tostudyandputforwarddevelopmentstrategiesandmajorpoliciesconcerningurbanization;ities;toformulateplansfortheoverallvolumeofimportandexportofimportantagriculturalproducts,industrialproductsandrawmaterials,supervisetheimplementationoftheseplansandadjusttheminaccordancewiththeperformanceofthenationaleconomy;toformulateplansforthestatereserveofstrategicmaterialsandcarryoutcollection,utilization,rotationandmanagementofthesematerials;tomanagethestatereserveofgrain,cottonandsugar,pmentpolicies;toorganizetheformulationofstrategies,overallplansandannualplansofsocialdevelopment;toparticipateintheformulationofdevelopmentpolicieswithregardtopopulationandfamilyplanning,scienceandtechnology,education,culture,healthandciviladministrationandpromotesocialundertakingconstruction;tostudyandputforwardpoliciesandsuggestionsofincreasingemployment,adjustingincomedistributionandimprovingthecoordinateddevelopmentofsocialsecurityandeconomicdevelopment;tocoordinatethesolutionofmajo;toundertakecomprehensivecoordinationofenergysavingandemissionreduction;toorganizetheformulationandcoordinatetheimplementationofplansandpolicymeasuresforrecyclingeconomy,nationalenergyandresourceconservationandcomprehensiveutilization;toparticipateintheformulationofplansforecologicalimprovementandenvironmentalprotection;tocoordinatethesolutionofmajorissuesconcerningecologicalbuilding,energyandresourceconservationandcomprehensiveutilization;tocoordinaterelevantworkconc,plansandpoliciesinaddressingclimatechange;totaketheleadwithrelatedministriesinattendinginternationalnegotiationsofclimatechange;toundertakerelevantworkinregardtothefulfillmentofthocialdevelopment,economicsystemrestructuringandopeninguptotheoutsideworldandformulateregulations;,studytherelationsofnationaleconomicmobilizationwithnationaleconomyandwithnationaldefense,coordinaterelatedmajorissues,organsion,theLeadingGroupOfficeforWesternRegionDevelopmentoftheStateCouncil,theLeadingGroupOfficeforRevitalizingNortheastChinaandOtherOldIndustrialBasesoftheStateCouncilandtheNationalLeadingGroupOfficeforClimateChange,,theNDRCisalsoresponsiblefortheadministrationoftheStateGrainAdministrationandtheNationalEnergyAdministration.

我国古代的造船技艺(图)

  我国古代的造船技艺(图)

  火箭发动机关闭后,飞船靠惯性向上飞行,最高飞至万米的高空。

  我国古代的造船技艺(图)

  严格说来,早期阶段的恩格斯、伯恩斯坦、考茨基、列宁、斯大林等对于马克思政治哲学思想的发展,属于体系内发展,因为他们的思想主题始终是追求更准确地理解与把握马克思政治哲学思想的本质。而针对自卢卡奇开始的诸多西方马克思主义政治哲学形态的不断问世,则属于体系外的延伸性形态变迁,可被视为马克思政治哲学思想多元化发展阶段的重要成果。在下篇中,该书探讨了马克思政治哲学思想的理论价值。首先对马克思政治哲学思想的推进历史加以逻辑分析和理论价值说明,深入探讨马克思政治哲学思想的理论突破,指出马克思提出的关于政治本质的四种理解模式不仅具有开放性特质,也摆脱了以往单一理解模式的局限性。

早在新石器时代,我们的祖先就广泛使用了独木舟和筏,并以非凡的勇气和智慧走向海洋。 据考证,筏舟船发明以前出现的第一种水上运载工具,就是新石器时期我国东南部的百越人发明的。

先秦时期,生养栖息于南海之滨的越人以自然物制成浮具、竹筏、木筏、独木舟、木板船,用于渔猎运输。

帆、桨、篙、舵、碇俱全的南越舟八槽舰是见于汉代文献记载的广式船舶。

西汉时期开辟了海上丝绸之路,南海巨舶在广州和古罗马的阿杜利港之间运送丝绸、珠宝、香料、矿物等大宗货物。

魏晋南北朝时期,从广州起航的航海帆船已可以到达阿拉伯半岛西南部的亚丁港。 唐代后期,海上丝绸之路经南洋、西亚和东非,跨越欧、亚、非三大洲,广州成为中国第一大港,设有专门从事航海贸易的市舶司,每年进入广州港的海船约4000艘。 因产地而得名的福船和广船以载重量大、结构坚固、抗风力强和航海性能好而闻名中外,是适应中国南方海阔水深、多岛屿地理环境的两种船型,多行走于南洋深水航线。

《新唐书》记载:仅广州一地一次能造海船五百艘,其中,苍船长二十丈(约米),能载六七百人,木兰舟能载1000人。 广式海船在用材上以热带硬木和荔枝木、樟木、乌婪木为主,用铁钉连接铆牢,船型首尖体长,吃水较深,梁拱小,甲板脊弧不高,有较好的适航性能和较大的续航力。 船体结构横向是以密距肋骨与隔舱板构成,纵向强度依靠龙骨。

舵板上开有成排的菱形小孔,操纵省力。 宋代时,广州海船建造技艺更趋成熟。

由广州开往西洋的船舶统称蕃船,与泉州海舶、明州船舶齐名,特别重视加强船舶的纵向强度,底部以从头到尾的龙骨为主干,船壳是由多层板料叠加而成,采用榫合钉接法,将构件坚实地连接起来,精工细作的捻缝工艺保障了船舱的水密性,运用升降舵、平衡舵和披水板提高了船舶的操纵性。 在元代,中国海上丝绸之路的起点开始从广州移到泉州,但广州对外贸易的规模仍然最大。

为了东、西洋的海上远征和大规模的海运漕粮,元代设置了广州造船坊。 明朝洪武初年,广东疍民编入水军,并由富户建造外海渔船兼战船。 明永乐年间的郑和下西洋更成为了中国古代造船、航海的顶峰。 明嘉靖至万历年间,俞大猷、戚继光、汤克宽等在领兵抗倭时,进一步完善了广船的性能,使广船成为当时最著名的战船船型。

明中期以后,中国走向海洋的步伐开始变慢。

同一时期,西方诸国先后在马六甲、爪哇、菲律宾等地建立了殖民地。 1553年,葡萄牙租占澳门,各国商船纷纷停泊此地,在明朝海禁的政策之下,澳门成了广东外贸的中转港。 1565年,由西班牙人开辟的广东菲律宾墨西哥大三角贸易航线横跨太平洋,主要进行中国丝货贸易,故称太平洋丝路,又称为大帆船贸易,这也在一定程度上推动了我国造船、航海技术的进步。 在明朝近300年的历史中,中国的造船业基地仍以广东、福建和江南为主。 清朝顺治年间,中国迈向海洋的脚步放缓。 年间南洋贸易被禁止,出洋帆船只许用双桅,梁头不得超过一丈八尺(约6米)。

年间只限广州一地对外开放。

1727年复开海禁后,清代的远洋航运又进入兴盛时期。

任两广总督期间,广船船型吸收了西方船形的一些优良特点,如使用钢丝索侧拉桅杆,使用钢制滑轮等。 1846年,英国航海商在香港建造的耆英号广船由30名中国水手和12名英国水手驾驶,从香港起航进行环球航行,在纽约停泊时,日参观者达七八千人。

在伦敦停靠时,英国亲自登船参观第一艘到达欧美的广式木帆船,见证了中国帆船精致的构造和优良的性能。